Access for All?

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The 2013 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households was released yesterday, and the number of unbanked and underbanked households in the U.S. hasn’t budged much in the last two years (the total percentage has declined slightly, to just under 28 percent, since 2011). Just under eight percent are unbanked–almost 1 million households. Of these:

  • Almost half (46 percent) have had a bank account in the past.
  • Seventeen percent currently don’t have a bank account due in part to their credit history.

Not surprisingly, the unbanked are highly reliant on alternative financial products:

  • 27 percent of the unbanked used prepaid cards, compared to 12 percent of households overall. Two-thirds of those that used prepaid cards in the last 30 days are unbanked or underbanked.
  • More than half used money orders in the last 30 days, versus less than 10 percent of all households.
  • Thirty-nine percent used checking cashing services, compared to just three percent of all households.

The FDIC and and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau have been pretty vocal about the fact that they want to decrease consumer use of alternative financial services. Will these regulators make a move to ensure that more Americans have access to a bank account? Last summer, New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman convinced Capital One Financial Corp. to amend its use of ChexSystems, a database used by many banks to screen applicants for fraud and credit risk. A 2009 report from the FDIC found that almost 90 percent of banks use a credit-screening database like ChexSystems, and one-quarter reject an account application due to a negative result. Earlier this month, Richard Cordray addressed the CFPB’s areas of concern on the matter, which boil down the three areas:

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Emily McCormick:

What are your thoughts on the future of banking? Al Dominick wants to know.

Originally posted on About That Ratio:

bd8a817e833e9bb01ddf91949fce917bAs shared in Bank Director’s current issue, peer-to-peer lenders, like San Francisco-based Lending Club, are beginning to gain traction as an alternative to banks in both the commercial and consumer loan space.

In the retail sector, well-funded technology companies like Google, Amazon and a host of others are swimming around like sharks looking to tear off chunks of revenue, particularly in the $300 billion a year payments business. These disruptors, as many consultants call them, are generally more nimble and quicker to bring new products to market.

While being “attacked by aggressive competitors from outside the industry is certainly not a new phenomenon for traditional banks,” it is fair to ask what a bank can do today. For inspiration, take a look at what Richard Fairbank, the Chairman and CEO of Capital One, had to say on a recent earnings call.

Ultimately the winners in banking will have the capabilities of a…

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Big Auto vs. The Innovator

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Yesterday Michigan Governor Rick Snyder passed Michigan House Bill 5606 (a tip of the hat to a longtime friend and fellow “car brat” who brought the story to my attention), which prevents electric car manufacturer Tesla Motors Inc. from selling vehicles in the state. Snyder, in a signing letter to the Michigan House of Representatives, says that this isn’t really news–the bill just clarifies that rather than using its own franchised network of dealerships, car manufacturers can sell through any franchise. Tesla sells directly to consumers, so sales of Tesla were always illegal in Michigan. Tesla had some damning words to say about the bill:

Not content with enshrining their ability to charge consumers dubious fees, on the last day of the legislative session, the dealers managed to make a last-minute change to the bill in an attempt to cement their broader retail monopoly. Using a procedure that prevented legislators and the public at large from knowing what was happening or allowing debate, Senator Joe Hune added new language in an attempt to lock Tesla out of the state,” Tesla said. “The dealers seek to force Tesla, a company that has never had a franchise dealership, into a body of law solely intended to govern the relationship between a manufacturer and its associated dealers. In so doing, they create an effective prohibition against Tesla opening a store in Michigan.

Either way, General Motors Co. has gone on record as a supporter of the bill, which, in the company’s view, levels the playing field by either forcing Tesla to sell through dealers or bow out of Michigan. Tesla seems committed to its direct-to-consumer strategy, so it looks like Tesla won’t be selling in the Great Lakes State any time soon.

I can’t help but draw parallels between this incident and another time that Big Auto has gone toe-to-toe against an innovator:

TuckerMoviePosterTucker: The Man and His Dream, the 1988 biographical movie, is based on the story of Preston Tucker’s attempt to change the auto industry in the 1940s. His “car of tomorrow”, the Tucker 48, featured several safety innovations, such as a shatterproof glass windshield, roll bar and seatbelts (The Tucker 48 was the first production car to include a seatbelt). In Francis Ford Coppola’s version of the story, the Big Three (Ford, GM and Chrysler) feared competition from the upstart Tucker as well as innovations like seatbelts that implied, in Detroit’s mind, that cars aren’t safe. Tucker’s dream was squashed when he and several other Tucker Corp. executives were indicted for mail fraud, conspiracy to defraud and SEC violations. They were eventually found not guilty, but Tucker Corp. fell apart and Tucker’s dream was dead.

Thinking about U.S./Big Auto vs. Tucker/Tesla brought my thoughts to all the nonbank competition out there today–and whether those nonbank competitors will remain immune from financial regulation for much longer. Of course, the picture in the bank space is significantly more complicated than in the auto industry, with big banks, community banks, credit unions, Big Tech like Google and Apple and small fintech startups all jostling for position.

And as they dig themselves further into the banking space, I think Big Tech and and the smaller fintech firms will come closer and closer to being under the thumb of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, an agency that enjoys freer reign than other regulators and relishes its role as the consumers’ protector. At least one law professor believes that Apple Pay already crossed the line. The more financial products and services that ‘Big Tech’ offers, the more they’ll come under the eye of Cordray. If that happens, will the CFPB mark the end of fintech innovation in the U.S.?

4Q14-Cover*If you’re interested in reading about the threat that technology companies pose to traditional banks, check out the latest issue of Bank Director magazine, featuring Jack Milligan’s cover story, “Sizing Up the Nonbank Threat”.

Meaningful CyberSafety Reform? Not Today.

VISAcard_MFPresident Obama today announced measures to ensure more secure transactions, which the White House has dubbed the BuySecure Initiative. The President endorsed chip and pin technology in a speech at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, saying that the UK saw a 70 percent reduction in credit card fraud after its adoption, and plans to apply the technology at the federal level to government credit cards and debit cards, and upgrade payment terminals at U.S. facilities to accept the new cards.

But the technology isn’t really new. Some form of chip technology has been used abroad for decades, while the U.S. continued to rely on magnetic stripe cards, which are easier to counterfeit. Chip cards store payment data within a microprocessor chip, and each transaction creates unique data which cannot be used for future transactions. They’re difficult to counterfeit, and definitely safer and more secure than what most Americans have been using–though as mobile payment options grow, you have to wonder how much longer chip and pin will be relevant.

So it looks like the Federal government is getting on board with more secure transactions. The White House also mentions that companies are joining this “national effort to improve transaction security” — stores like Target and Home Depot (both victims of data security breaches within the past year), as well as Wal-Mart and Walgreens. These retailers will roll out secure chip and pin card terminals in stores by January.

But these stores already committed to chip and pin, along with many major banks. After October 2015, the company that has the outdated magnetic stripe technology — the retailer or the bank — will be the one holding the bag if there’s a data breach. (I wrote about this in our 2nd quarter 2014 issue of Bank Director magazine, available here. Registration may be required.) Target stepped up its efforts after its infamous data breach late last year, and already planned a roughly $100 million investment in chip card readers at all its U.S. stores by the first quarter of 2015.

The White House also announced that “Citi, in partnership with FICO, will begin making credit scores available for free to its consumer card customers updated monthly online — joining the over 70 million Americans who already have access to this feature at other nationwide banks and card issuers.” (Emphasis my own). Again, no real news here: Credit scores are often included as checking account add-ons.

President Obama’s goal to protect Americans from identity and data theft is laudable. But I just don’t feel that much was accomplished today.

Emily McCormick:

How will disruptive competitors like Google, PayPal and Simple impact the banking industry? Bank Director Editor Jack Milligan explores this question.

Originally posted on The Bank Spot:

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I am writing a story for the fourth quarter issue of Bank Director magazine on the emergence of nonbank disruptors as potentially serious competitors for traditional banks in the personal financial services and payments space. I don’t want to tip my hand before the piece is published in late October, but I would like to share some of my preliminary thoughts. I love writing feature stories like this because they allow you to really dig into a subject. There are fewer magazines out there that still practice long form journalism, but Bank Director is one of them.

There has certainly been a lot of activity in the PFS and payments space of late. The disruptors have been very busy. (You should definitely read a string of insightful blogs on the nonbank competitive threat written by my colleague, Bank Director President Al Dominick, at AboutThatRato.) Here are some of the…

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Financial Research: Grappling with Technology

Bank leaders want to know more about how to leverage technology to make their institutions more profitable, but don’t know where to start, reveals the 2014 Growth Strategy Survey. Bank Director and CDW surveyed 145 independent directors and executives in June and July to uncover technology’s role in growth strategy.

Growth-Survey-Group-1Bank leaders know that technology can make their banks more efficient, and know that customer demands are only growing. But less than one-third talk about technology at every board meeting, and one-quarter of banks lack the IT staff to grow the bank.

Growth-Survey-Group-4When asked about the top technology concerns for their banks, keeping up with the evolution of mobile banking is a concern for more than half. Data analytics is also top of mind, and the survey finds that big banks are better users of data. Forty percent of respondents overall use business intelligence tools and analytics within their organization, but more than three-quarters of banks over $5 billion in assets currently use data to support growth goals.

Growth-Survey-Group-2One-third are concerned that the bank’s core processor impedes the bank’s ability to innovate. Community banks in particular depend on vendors for their technological expertise, yet half say that their core processor is slow to respond to innovations.

Growth-Survey-Group-3It’s important to note that many of these concerns about innovation and the use of data tie into growing concerns about competition from outside the industry. Eighty-four percent of respondents say that today’s highly competitive environment is their greatest challenge when it comes to growing the bank, and 83 percent worry about nonbank competitors. Banks above $5 billion in assets reveal a heightened concern about PayPal and Amazon.

Full survey results are available online at BankDirector.com.

The Growth of the…Branch?

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The American Bankers Association just released survey results that say that the number of Americans that prefer to bank within a branch actually grew within the last year. Americans opting for internet banking fell by 8 percentage points, while the number who prefer to meet their banking needs through ATM or mobile each grew slightly.  The ABA theorizes that recent technological advancements made within bank branches have made the channel more efficient and therefore, more attractive to customers.

Reflecting the view across the pond, Accenture released a study last month, focusing on the UK financial services industry, with similar findings–online banking remains steady, while the use of branch and mobile channels grow.

There are certainly branch success stories for community banks in the U.S., and most of these involve a transition to self-service, whether through the use of image-enabled ATMs or video tellers. Kennebec Savings Bank uses image-enabled ATMs to handle one-third of the bank’s deposits, and the machines allow the bank to expand in its market through self-service branches more cheaply  than through a traditional branch. And Conestoga Bank opens two-to-three times more accounts each quarter through video tellers. (For more on how these banks are using technology in the branch, please read my contribution to Bank Director magazine’s innovation section, “Will Video Kill the Teller Line?“.)

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